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彼岸花诗为什么玩俄罗斯方块会上瘾?这里有心理学上的解释-浩添商务咨询

为什么玩俄罗斯方块会上瘾?这里有心理学上的解释-浩添商务咨询


Source: byMary Pilonfrom Science of Us
作为经典的益智游戏井边会 ,俄罗斯方块揭示了导致我们游戏上瘾的基本原理。俄罗斯方块制造了混乱,而在混乱中重建秩序是我们的本能愿望。郭文韬 这个基本需求通过看着那些排列完整的一行或多行消失而得到满足 – 这是一个有收获的体验,从而激励我们继续玩下去彼岸花诗 。下一次你对俄罗斯方块着迷时,请记住我们只是普通人…
In the mid-1980s, a man named Alexey Pajitnov长钢吧 , a programmer at the Soviet Academy of Sciences, created something that would spread far beyond the confines of his Soviet lab. Pajitnov, who often used games as a way to test equipment, was doing just that on an Electronika 60 computer, an antiquated machine that had been use by the country’s Department of Defense. This time, he used a puzzle of falling bricks.
From there, things happened fast. In 1985, the same puzzle game was ported onto the IBM PC顾成栋 , gaining popularity with users around the Soviet Union; it soon wormed its way out of Soviet borders, ending up at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, where it caught the attention of a software designer. The designer promptly flew to Moscow, secured the handheld rights, and licensed them to Nintendo, which included a cartridge with the puzzle in all sales of its 1989 Game Boy. Today, that creation born behind the Berlin Wall has made its way around the world as one of gaming’s most famous and ingenious time sucks:Tetris. And the story of this humble puzzle game, with its enduring popularity, is also the story of what makes us tick as human beings.
“Tetrisfulfills a very simple need,” says Pajitnov, who now lives in Washington state. “We all have a natural desire to create order out of chaos. The game ofTetrissatisfies that desire on a very basic level.”
He’s not wrong, but that satisfaction is rooted in another deeply unsatisfying reality: To playTetrisis to knowingly opt in to something that has no end and no way of winning. The game is “simple to learn怡乐生活馆 , but very hard to master,” Pajitnov says, but that’s not quite right — it’simpossibleto master. Despite the laserlike focus it generates, Tetris has no clear endpoint and no easily defined opponents. Unlike with most other video games, you’re playing only against yourself绝色江湖, without any concrete goals other than to keep on fitting blocks into other blocks. The focus is on the process, rather than the result.
So what keeps us sorting Tetrominoes, as those little shapes are called, when we know all our efforts are ultimately futile? As writer Adam Alterexplainedin his bookIrresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked馨雨听书网, that futility is actually a key element of what makes the game so appealing: “The hardship of the challenge is far more compelling than knowing you are going to succeed,” he wrote. “The game allows you the brief thrill of seeing your completed lines flash before they disappear, leaving only your mistakes … It is in this sweet spot — where the need to stop crumbles before obsessive goal-setting — that addictive experiences live.”Tetrisis a tease, using small victories to lead players down a path with no end.
That’s not to say we don’t get anything out of it along the way. Something remarkable is happening on the cognitive level when we shuffle Tetrominoes: As writer Jeffrey Goldsmith pointed out ina 1994Wiredarticleon the game (one that was published, it bears noting, long before it made its successful shift to smartphones or the internet), people playingTetrisfor the first time will see a significant uptick in their cerebral glucose metabolic rates, meaning that brain energy-consumption explodes. But after four to eight weeks of daily doses, that rate reverts to normal, “while performance increases seven-fold越城记 , on averagez计划 ,” Goldsmith wrote. “Tetris trains your brain to stop using inefficient gray matter, perhaps a key cognitive strategy for learning.”
In recent years兽拳 , researchers have shed some light on what that means, neurologically speaking. Astudypublished in the journalBMC Research Notesin 2009 found thatTetriscan increase efficiency in the areas of the brain dedicated to reasoning and critical thinking. Other research, meanwhile, has shown thatTetrismay be psychologically healing: In astudypublished in the journalPLOS ONE, also from 2009, scientists from the University of Oxford found that playingTetrismay help reduce the buildup of flashbacks from a trauma. Because traumatic flashbacks are tied to sensory perception and mental images岳奇峰 , the study authors wanted to know whether a visuospatial computer game likeTetriswould interfere with the flashbacks.
In the Oxford experiment金色平原 , participants watched a traumatic film that contained scenes of injury and death; after a 30-minute break童启华 , some of the participants played a ten-minute round ofTetris. Compared to the control group, those who played the game saw “a significant reduction in flashback frequency” over the one-week period the researchers monitored. Along the same lines, a 2014Appetitestudyfound thatTetriscould be used to help curb some regularly occurring cravings by “reduc[ing] the vividness and frequency of craving imagery.”
In other words,Tetrisis a remarkably formidable distraction王天雷 , using so much brainpower that other mental processes go ignored. Or maybe the worddistractiondoesn’t quite do it justice: “The Tetris effect is a biochemical, reductionistic metaphor, if you will, for curiosity, invention, the creative urge,” Goldsmith wrote inWired. “To fit shapes together is to organize, to build, to make deals, to fix, to understand.” And that’s not the only metaphor in the game. The greatest obstacle inTetrisis time and one’s own ability to navigate it — kind of like life itself.